Hemp (cannabis) is one of the oldest useful and ornamental plants in the
history of human history
The applications of hemp are diverse and the plant has therefore been cultivated by people for many millennia.
In addition to the fibers, oils and extracts are also obtained from the hemp plant, which are used in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
In Switzerland, the cultivation of hemp is allowed up to a THC content of less than 1%. This grower guide is exclusively intended for the cultivation of hemp plants outdoors with a THC content within the legally permissible limits for private use. This guide contains only basic information about hemp cultivation. For more detailed information, we recommend you to consult appropriate specialized literature.
Hemp (Cannabis) belongs to the family of hemp plants (Cannabaceae)
Hemp is an annual plant, which determines the cycle from sowing to flowering or harvesting within a year. Hemp is separately sexual (dioecious). There are male and female hemp plants and inflorescences. Hemp therefore relies on the pollination of female inflorescences by male pollen to form hemp seeds and reproduce.
Cannabis grows preferably in tropical, Mediterranean and temperate zones such as the subtropics. There it can be found cultivated and feral. However, some varieties have no problem growing outdoors from spring to fall in regions like Central Europe and thrive there.
A very important point is the condition of the soil. A good soil gives the hemp plant all the vital nutrients to thrive and produce a healthy and productive hemp plant. A poor soil, on the other hand, can lead from stunted growth, which logically directly affects harvest, to the death of the hemp plant. Soil is not equal to soil and soil is not equal to soil. It depends on the content. A light soil that drains well is ideal. In addition, there should be enough nutrients. This can also be achieved with a slow-release fertilizer that is added to the soil according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Light and solar radiation
Find a place with as much sunlight as possible. Light, in this case the sun, provides the energy for photosynthesis.
Hemp needs a lot of it for growth. It loves to be in the sunlight.
So make sure that no obstacles like trees, houses or similar cast a shadow directly on your cannabis plant.
It is ideal if the place is facing south.
Since the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, the so-called south side is exposed to sunlight all day. Whereas a spot facing west or east will only receive half-day sunlight.
Like light, water is essential for the growth and life of the hemp plant.
The water is absorbed mainly through the roots. However, also through the leaves and stems through the humidity of the air and spraying.
Through the water not only the fluid balance of the hemp plants is regulated, but also vital nutrients (nutrient salts) and trace elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc. but also oxygen brought into the plant.
In interaction with light, through photosynthesis, stem, leaf and flower material is produced and thus growth for the plant is only possible.
The cannabis plant can absorb liquid and nutrients through the leaves. So you can support the cannabis plant after hot and dry days to regulate its fluid balance faster.
Deficiency symptoms such as too little nitrogen or phosphorus can also be corrected more quickly by adding fertilizer to the spray water.
However, this is not a substitute for a healthy and nutrient-rich root medium, but rather a “fine-tuning” to fill certain nutrient holes in nutrient uptake. In addition, much care should be taken with any fertilizing through the leaves because the leaves are very sensitive to burning. Generally, only 10% of the normal amount of fertilizer (when watering) is used as foliar fertilizer (when spraying).
In bloom, spraying should be done only in the first few weeks, if necessary. The flowers are susceptible to mold, rot and insects as they get larger and older due to excessive moisture.
DO NOT spray the hemp plants in strong sunshine. Water on the hemp plant can cause the leaves and flowers to burn from the incoming light.
After a more or less successful growing season, the time has come that every grower looks forward to the most. The harvest time!
But the right time to harvest is just as important as the processing and storage. The wrong handling can reduce the gained harvest.
Harvesting too early or too late can lead to reduced cannabinoid content, harvest weight and aroma. Poor or incorrect methods of drying and storage, such as excessive humidity, can cause the precious crop to mold or rot. If possible, the temperature of the room where harvesting and drying takes place should be kept low, as this can reduce the development of odors.
We always recommend drying the plants after harvesting completely suspended from the stem, so that the flowers and terpenes remain as intact as possible during the drying phase. If necessary, the larger water leaves can be removed beforehand.
At least the last 14 days before harvesting, the hemp plant should only be watered with clear water to flush any fertilizer residues out of the plant.
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